Nunez-Regueiro, M., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., S. F. Siddiqui. Effects of bioenergy on biodiversity arising from land-use change and crop type. Conservation Biology.
Haase, C. T., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., D. H. Slone, J. P. Reid, and S. M. Butler. Traveling to thermal refuges during stressful temperatures leads to foraging constraints in a central-place forager. Journal of Mammalogy.
Marx, A. J., C. Wang, J. A. Sefair, M. A. Acevedo, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. samc: An R package for connectivity modeling with spatial absorbing Markov chains. Ecography.
Loy, X, D. Gruenewald, I. G. W. Gottlieb , E. K. Dobbs, A. Miljanic, J. Botsch, B. Lawley, L. Smith, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and B. J. Brosi. Impact of bioenergy pine plantation management practices on bee communities. Journal of Applied Ecology.
Duncan, S. I., J. T. Pynne, E. I. Parson, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., J. D. Austin, S. B. Castleberry, L. M. Conner, R. A. Gitzen, M. Barbour, and R. A. McCleery. 2020. Land use and cover effects on an ecosystem engineer. Forest Ecology and Management.
Duncan, S. I., E. P. Robertson, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and J. D. Austin. Urbanization and population genetic structure of the Panama City crayfish (Procambarus econfinae). Journal of Heredity.
Shapiro, J. T., A. R. Sovie, C. R. Faller, A. Monadjem, R. J.Fletcher, Jr., and R. M . McCleery. Ebola spillover correlated with bat diversity. European Journal of Wildlife Research.
Betts, M. G., C. Wolf, M. Pfeifer, C. Banks-Leite, V. Arroyo-Rodriguez, D. B. Ribeiro, J. Barlow, F. Eigenbrod, D. Faria, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., A. S. Hadley, J. E. Hawes, R. D. Holt, B. Klingbeil, U. Kormann, L. Lens, T. Levi, G. F. Medina-Rangel, D. Mezger, J. C. Morante-Filho, D. Orme, C. A. Peres, B. T. Phalan, A. Pidgeon, H. Possingham, W. J. Ripple, E. M. Slade, E. Somarriba, J. Tobias, J. M .Tylianakis, J. N. Urbina-Cardona, J. J. Valente, J. I. Watling, K. Wells, O. R. Wearn, E. Wood, R. Young, and R. M. Ewers. 2019. Extinction filters and geographic variation mediate the effects of habitat fragmentation on animals. Science.
Damschen, E. I., L. A. Brudvig, M. Burt, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., N. M. Haddad, D. J. Levey, J. L. Orrock, J. Resasco, and J. J. Tewksbury. 2019. Ongoing accumulation of plant diversity through habitat connectivity in an 18-year experiment. Science 365:1478-1480.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., T. Hefley, E. P. Robertson, R. A. McCleery, B. Zuckerberg, and R. M. Dorazio. 2019. A practical guide for combining data to model species distributions. Ecology 100:e02710.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., J. A. Sefair, C. Wang, C. Poli, E. M. Bruna, T. Smith, R. D. Holt, A. J. Marx, and M. A. Acevedo. 2019. Towards a unified framework for connectivity that disentangles movement and mortality in space and time. Ecology Letters 22:1680-1689.
Miljanic, A. S., X. Loy, D. L. Gruenewald, E. K. Dobbs, I. G. W. Gottlieb, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and B. J. Brosi. 2019. Bee communities in forestry production landscapes: Interactive effects of local-level management and landscape context. Landscape Ecology 34:1015-1032.
Nunez-Regueiro, M., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., E. Pienaar, L. Branch, J. Volante, and S. Rifai. 2019. Adding the temporal dimension to spatial patterns of PES enrollment. Ecosystem Services 36:100906.
Pillay, R., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., K. E. Sieving, B. J. Udell, and H. Bernard. 2019. Bioacoustic monitoring reveals shifts in breeding songbird populations and singing behaviour with selective logging in tropical forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 56:2582-2492.
Robertson, E. P., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and J. D. Austin. 2019. The number of breeders explains genetic connectivity in an endangered bird. Molecular Ecology 28:2746-2756.
Udell, B., J. Martin, R. J. Fletcher Jr., M. Bonneau, H. Edwards, T. Gowan, S. K. Hardy, E. Gurarie, C. S. Calleson, C. J. Deutsch. 2019. Integrating encounter theory with decision analysis to evaluate collision risk and optimal configurations of wildlife protection zones. Journal of Applied Ecology 56:1050-1062.
Cattau, C. E., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., C. W. Miller, R. T. Kimball, and W. M. Kitchens. 2018. Rapid morphological change of a top predator with the invasion of a novel prey. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2:108-115.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., R. K. Didham, C. Banks-Leite, J. Barlow, R. M. Ewers, J. Rosindell, R. D. Holt, A. Gonzalez, R. Pardini, E. I. Damschen, F. P. L. Melo, L. Ries, J. A. Prevedello, T. Tscharntke, T. Lovejoy, W. F. Laurance, N. M. Haddad. 2018. Is habitat fragmentation good for biodiversity? Biological Conservation 226:9-15.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., B. E. Reichert, and K. Holmes. 2018. The negative effects of habitat fragmentation operate at the scale of dispersal. Ecology 99:2176-2186.
Ke, A., M. Sibiya, C. Reynolds, R. A. McCleery, A. Monadjem, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2018. Landscape heterogeneity shapes taxonomic of non-breeding birds across fragmented savanna landscapes. Biodiversity and Conservation 27:2681-2698.
McCleery, R. A., A. Mondjem, B. Baiser, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., K. Vickers, and L. Kruger. 2018. Animal diversity declines with broad-scale homogenization of canopy cover in African savannas. Biological Conservation 226:64-72.
Pillay, R., F. Hua, B. A. Loiselle, H. Bernard, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2018. Multiple stages of tree seedling recruitment are altered in tropical forests degraded by selective logging. Ecology and Evolution 8:8231-8242.
Reynolds, C., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., C. M. Carneiro, N. Jennings, A. Ke, M. C. LaScaleia, M. B. Lukhele, M. L. Mamba, M. D. Sibiya, J. D. Austin, C. N. Magagula, T. Mahlaba, A. Monadjem, S. M. Wisely, and R. A. McCleery. 2018. Inconsistent effects of landscape heterogeneity and land-use on animal diversity in an agricultural mosaic: a multi-scale and multi-taxon investigation. Landscape Ecology 33:241–255.
Robertson, E. P., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., C. E. Cattau, B. J. Udell, B. E. Reichert, J. D. Austin, and D. R. Valle. 2018.
Isolating the roles of movement and reproduction on effective connectivity alters conservation priorities for an endangered bird. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 115:8591-8596.
Robertson, E. P., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and J. D. Austin. 2018. Microsatellite polymorphism in the endangered snail kite reveals a panmictic, low diversity population. Conservation Genetics 19:337-348.
Stanton, R. A., Jr., W. W. Boone, J. Soto-Shoender, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., N. Blaum, and R. A. McCleery. 2018. Shrub encroachment and vertebrate diversity: a global meta-analysis. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27:368-379.
Valle, D. R., P. A. Barberan, Q. Zhao, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2018. Extending the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model to presence/absence data: a case study on North American breeding birds and biogeographic shifts predicted from climate change. Global Change Biology 24:5560-5572.
Acevedo, M. A., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2017. The proximate causes of asymmetric movement across heterogeneous landscapes. Landscape Ecology 32:1285-1297.
Chaves, W. A., K. E. Sieving, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2017. Avian responses to reduced-impact logging in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 384:147-156.
Ferguson, J. M., B. E. Reichert, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and H. I. Yager. 2017. Detecting population-environmental interactions with mismatched time series data. Ecology 98:2813-2822.
Gottlieb, I. G. W., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., M. M. Nunez-Regueiro, H. Ober, L. Smith, and B. J. Brosi. 2017. Alternative biomass strategies for bioenergy: implications for bird communities across the southeastern United States. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 9:1606-1617.
Haase, C. T., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., D. H. Slone, J. P. Reid, and S. M. Butler. 2017. Landscape complementation revealed through bipartite networks: an example with the Florida manatee. Landscape Ecology 32:1999-2014.
Haddad, N. M., R. D. Holt, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., M. Loreau, and J. Clobert. 2017. Connecting models, data, and concepts to understand fragmentation's ecosystem-wide effects. Ecography 40:1-8.
Ries, L., S. M. Murphy, G. M. Wimp, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2017. Closing persistent gaps in knowledge about edge ecology. Current Landscape Ecology Reports 2:30-41.
Robertson, E. P., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and J. D. Austin. 2017. The causes of dispersal and the cost of carryover effects for an endangered bird in a dynamic wetland landscape. Journal of Animal Ecology 86:857-865.
Sefair, J., M. A. Acevedo, C. Smith, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2017. A defender-attacker model and algorithm for maximizing weighted expected hitting time with application to conservation planning. IISE Transactions 49:1112-1128.
Strauss, S. H., K. N. Jones, H. Lu, J. H. Petit, A. L. Klocko, M. G. Betts, B. J. Brosi, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and M. D. Needham. 2017. Reproductive modification in forest plantations: impacts on biodiversity and society. New Phytologist 213:1000-1021.
Tye, C., R. A. McCleery, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., D. Greene, and R. Butryn. 2017. Evaluating citizen versus professional data for modeling distributions of a rare squirrel. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:628-637.
Valle, D., S. Cvetojevic, E. P. Robertson, B. E. Reichert, H. H. Hochmair, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2017. Individual movement strategies revealed through novel clustering of emergent movement patterns. Scientific Reports 7:44052.
Cattau, C. E., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., Reichert, B. E., and W. M. Kitchens. 2016. Counteracting effects of an non-native prey on the demography of a native predator culminate in positive population growth. Ecological Applications 26: 1952-1968.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., N. Burrell, B. E. Reichert, and D. Vasudev. 2016. Divergent perspectives on landscape connectivity reveal consistent effects from genes to communities. Current Landscape Ecology Reports 1:67-79.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., R. A. McCleery, D. Greene, and C. Tye. 2016. Integrated models that unite local and regional data reveal larger-scale environmental relationships and improve predictions of species distributions. Landscape Ecology 31: 1369-1382.
Pias, K., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and W. M. Kitchens. 2016. Assessing the value of novel habitats to snail kites through foraging behavior and nest survival. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 7: 449-460.
Reichert, B. E., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., C. E. Cattau, and W. M. Kitchens. 2016. Consistent scaling of population structure across landscapes despite intraspecific variation in movement and connectivity. Journal of Animal Ecology 85:1563-1573.
Reichert, B. E., W. L. Kendall, R. J. Fletcher, Jr.,and W. M. Kitchens. 2016. Spatio-temporal variation in age structure and abundance of the endangered snail kite: pooling across regions masks a declining and aging population. PLoS One 11(9):e0162690.
Sovie, A. R., R. A. McCleery, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and K. Hart. 2016. Invasive pythons, not anthropogenic stressors, explain the distribution of a keystone species. Biological Invasions 18:3309-3318.
Vasudev, D., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2016. Mate choice interacts with movement limitations to influence effective dispersal. Ecological Modelling 327:65–73.
Wilcox, R, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2016. Experimental test of preferences for an invasive prey by an endangered predator: implications for conservation. PLoS One 11(11): e0165427.
Acevedo, M. A., J. A. Sefair, J. C. Smith, B. E. Reichert, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2015. Conservation under uncertainty: optimal network protection strategies for worst-case disturbance events. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:1588-1597.
Acevedo, M. A., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., R. Tremblay, and E. Meléndez-Ackerman. 2015. Spatial asymmetries in connectivity influence colonization-extinction dynamics. Oecologia 179:415-424.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., E. P. Robertson, R. C. Wilcox, B. E. Reichert, J. D. Austin, and W. M. Kitchens. 2015. Affinity for natal environments by dispersers impacts reproduction and explains geographic structure for a highly mobile bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282:20151545.
McCarthy, K. P., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2015. Does hunting activity for game species have indirect effects on resource selection by the endangered Florida panther? Animal Conservation 18:138-145.
Nunez-Regueiro, M. M., L. Branch, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., G. A. Maras, E. Derlindatti, and A. Talamo. 2015. Spatial patterns of mammal occurrence in forest strips surrounded by agricultural crops of the Chaco region, Argentina. Biological Conservation 187:19-26.
Reichert, B. E., C. E. Cattau, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., P. W. Sykes, Jr., J. A. Rodgers, Jr. and R. E. Bennetts. 2015. Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis). Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 171.
Vasudev, D., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2015. Incorporating movement behavior into conservation prioritization in fragmented landscapes: an example of western hoolock gibbons in Garo Hills, India. Biological Conservation 181:124-132.
Vasudev, D., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., V. R. Goswami, and M. Krishnadas. 2015. From dispersal constraints to landscape connectivity: lessons from species distribution modeling. Ecography 38:967-978.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., M. A. Acevedo, and E. P. Robertson. 2014. The matrix alters the role of path redundancy on patch colonization rates. Ecology 95:1444-1450. Featured as cover photo.
Cattau, C. E., P. C. Darby, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and W. M. Kitchens. 2014. Reproductive responses of the endangered snail kite to variations in prey density. Journal of Wildlife Management 78: 620-631.
Hua, F., K. E. Sieving, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and C. Wright. 2014. Increased perception of predation risk to adults and offspring alters avian reproductive strategy and performance. Behavioral Ecology 25:509-519.
Orrock, J. L., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2014. An island-wide predator manipulation reveals immediate and long-lasting matching of risk by prey. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20140391.
Thornton, D. H., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2014. Body size and spatial scales in avian response to landscape structure: a meta-analysis. Ecography 37:454-463.
Watling, J. I., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., Y. Escribano, L. A. Brandt, S. S. Romanach, L. G. Pearlstine, and F. J. Mazzotti. 2014. Alternative climate inputs change the spatial signature of predictions in climate envelope models. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 5:14-25.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., A. Revell, B. E. Reichert, W. M. Kitchens, J. Dixon, and J. D. Austin. 2013. Network modularity reveals critical scales for connectivity in ecology and evolution. Nature Communications 4:2572.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., C. W. Maxwell, Jr., J. E. Andrews, and W. L. Helmy-Hartman. 2013. Signal detection theory clarifies the concept of perceptual range and its relevance to landscape connectivity. Landscape Ecology 28:57-67.
Hurst, Z., R. A. McCleery, B. Collier, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., A. Monajedem, and N. Silvy. 2013. Dynamic edge effects in small mammal communities across a conservation-agricultural interface in Swaziland. PLoS One 8(9):e74520.
Hua, F., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., K. E. Sieving, and R. M. Dorazio. 2013. Too risky to settle: avian community structure changes in response to perceived predation risk on adults and offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20130762.
Miller, C. W., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and S. Gillespie. 2013. Conspecific and heterospecific cues override resource quality to influence offspring production. PLoS One 8(7):e70268.
Acevedo, M. A., M. Marcano, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2012. A diffusive logistic growth model to describe forest recovery. Ecological Modelling 244:13-19.
Austin, J. D., C. W. Miller, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2012. Natural selection and phenotypic plasticity in wildlife adaptation to climate change. Pages 38-57 in J. Brodie, E. Post, J. Berger, and D. Doak, Editors, Conserving wildlife populations in a changing climate. University of Chicago Press.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., J. L. Orrock, and B. A. Robertson. 2012. How the type of anthropogenic change alters the consequences of ecological traps. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279:2546-2552.
McCarthy, K. P., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., C. T. Rota, and R. L. Hutto. 2012. Predicting species distributions from samples collected along roadsides. Conservation Biology 26:68-77.
Miller, C. W., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., B. D. Anderson, and L. D. Nguyen. 2012. Natal social environment influences habitat selection later in life. Animal Behaviour 83:473-477.
Reichert, B. E., C. E. Cattau, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., W. L. Kendall, and W. M. Kitchens. 2012. Extreme weather and experience influence reproduction in an endangered bird. Ecology 93:2580-2589.
Robertson, B. A., R. A. Rice, T. S. Sillett, C. A. Ribic, B. A. Babcock, D. A. Landis, J. R. Herkert, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., J. J. Fontaine, P. J. Doran, and D. W. Schemske. 2012. Are agrofuels a conservation threat or opportunity for grassland birds in the United States? Condor 114:679-688.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., M. A. Acevedo, B. E. Reichert, K. E. Pias, and W. M. Kitchens. 2011. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108:19282-19287.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., B. A. Robertson, J. M. Evans, P. Doran, J. R. R. Alavalapati, and D. Schemske. 2011. Biodiversity conservation in the era of biofuels: risks and opportunities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:161-168.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., J. S. Young, R. L. Hutto, A. Noson, and C. T. Rota. 2011. Insights from ecological theory on temporal dynamics and species distribution modeling. Pages 91-107 in C. A. Drew, Y. F. Wiersma, and F. Huettmann, editors, Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology: Concepts and Applications. Springer, New York.
Rota, C. T., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., J. M. Evans, and R. L. Hutto. 2011. Does accounting for imperfect detection improve species distribution models? Ecography 34: 659-670.
Ahlering, M. A., D. Arlt, M. G. Betts, R. J. Fletcher, Jr., J. J. Nocera, and M. Ward. 2010. Research needs and recommendations for the use of conspecific-attraction methods in the conservation of migratory songbirds. Condor 112:252-264.
Evans, J. M., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and J. Alavalapati. 2010. Using species distribution models to identify suitable areas for biofuel feedstock production. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 2:63-78.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and K. E. Sieving. 2010. Social information use in heterogeneous landscapes: a prospectus. Condor 112:225-234.
Maron, J. L., D. E. Pearson, and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2010. Counterintuitive effects of a large-scale predator removal on a midlatitude rodent community. Ecology 91:3719-3728.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr. 2009. Does attraction to conspecifics explain the patch-size effect? An experimental test. Oikos 118:1139-1147.
Rota, C. T., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., R. M. Dorazio, and M. G. Betts. 2009. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1173-1181.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr. 2008. Social information and community dynamics: nontarget effects from simulating social cues for management. Ecological Applications 18:1764-1773.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and R. L. Hutto. Partitioning the multi-scale effects of human activity on the occurrence of riparian forest birds. Landscape Ecology 23:727-739.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and C. W. Miller. 2008. The type and timing of social information alters offspring production. Biology Letters 4:482-485.
Pearson, D. E., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2008. Mitigating exotic impacts: restoring native deer mouse populations elevated by an exotic food subsidy. Ecological Applications 18:321-334.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr. 2007. Species interactions and population density mediate the use of social cues for habitat selection. Journal of Animal Ecology 76:598-606.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., L. Ries, J. Battin, and A. D. Chalfoun. 2007. The role of habitat area and edge in fragmented landscapes: definitively distinct or inevitably intertwined? Canadian Journal of Zoology 85:1017-1030. Invited article.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr. 2006. Emergent properties of conspecific attraction in fragmented landscapes. American Naturalist 168:207-219.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and R. L. Hutto. 2006. Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys. Auk 123:695-707.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and C. W. Miller. 2006. On the evolution of hidden leks and the implications for reproductive and habitat selection behaviours. Animal Behaviour 71:1247-1251.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., R. R. Koford, and D. A. Seaman. 2006. Critical demographic parameters for declining songbirds breeding in restored grasslands. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:145-157.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr. 2005. Multiple edge effects and their implications in fragmented landscapes. Journal of Animal Ecology 74:342-352.
Orrock, J. L., and R. J. Fletcher, Jr. 2005. Changes in community size affect the outcome of competition. American Naturalist 166:107-111.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and R. R. Koford. 2004. Consequences of rainfall variation for breeding wetland blackbirds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1316-1325.
Ries, L. , R. J. Fletcher, Jr., J. Battin, and T. D. Sisk. 2004. Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models, and variability explained. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35:491-522.
Fletcher, R. 2003. Loss of wetlands: how are bird communities affected? American Institute of Biological Sciences. http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/fletcher.html. Invited
Fletcher, R. J., Jr. 2003. State preserves in Iowa. Prairie Naturalist 35:124. Invited.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and R. R. Koford. 2003. Spatial responses of Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) near different types of edges in northern Iowa. Auk 120:799-810.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and R. R. Koford. 2002. Habitat and landscape associations of breeding birds in restored grasslands. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:1011-1022.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., and R. R. Koford. 2003. Changes in breeding bird populations with habitat restoration in northern Iowa. American Midland Naturalist 150:83-94.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., J. A. Dhundale, and T. F. Dean. 2000. Estimating non-breeding bird abundance in prairies: a comparison of two survey techniques. Journal of Field Ornithology 71:321-329.
Horn, D. J., R. J. Fletcher, Jr., and R. R. Koford. 2000. Detecting area-sensitivity: a comment on previous studies. American Midland Naturalist 144:28-35.
Fletcher, R. J., Jr., S. T. McKinney, and C. E. Bock. 1999. Effects of recreational trails along riparian corridors on wintering diurnal raptors in a Colorado grassland. Journal of Raptor Research 33:233-239